The Mathematical Symbol "Sine Wave (∿)"

The "Sine Wave" Symbol (∿)

The ∿ symbol is not part of the standard HTML named entities for mathematical symbols. However, if a custom entity has been defined for a sine wave, ∿ might be the representation. Nevertheless, in standard contexts, the sine wave, typically representing oscillation or a waveform, doesn't have a dedicated HTML named entity.

Visual Representation

If we consider a sine wave, it is a smooth, periodic oscillation that is often used to represent simple harmonic motion, signals in electronics, sound waves, etc. It's characterized by its amplitude, frequency, and phase.

Usage in Mathematics and Physics

In mathematics, the sine wave is the graph of the sine function. It describes a smooth repetitive oscillation and is fundamental in trigonometry. The equation for a sine wave can be given as: \[ y(t) = A \sin(2\pi f t + \phi) \] Where:

  • \( A \) is the amplitude of the wave.
  • \( f \) is the frequency of the wave.
  • \( t \) is time.
  • \( \phi \) is the phase of the wave.

Usage in Electronics

In electronics, the sine wave is used to describe a pure alternating current or voltage. It's the simplest form of waveform and is the basis for more complex signals and waveforms.

Representation in Other Contexts

While there isn't a dedicated HTML named entity for the sine wave, different platforms and software may have their own ways of representing it. For instance, in LaTeX, you might use specific plotting functions to depict a sine wave. On a calculator or graphing software, you'd use the sine function to plot it.


The sine wave is a fundamental concept in various fields like mathematics, physics, engineering, music, and more. While there's no dedicated HTML entity for it, its importance and applicability in diverse domains make it an essential waveform to understand and represent.

Mathematical symbol 'Sine Wave'

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Codes for the ∿ Symbol

The Symbol
Alt CodeAlt 8767
HTML Code∿
HTML Entity∿
CSS Code\223F
Hex Code∿

How To Insert the ∿ Symbol

(Method 1) Copy and paste the symbol.

The easiest way to get the ∿ symbol is to copy and paste it into your document.

Bear in mind that this is a UTF-8 encoded character. It must be encoded as UTF-8 at all stages (copying, replacing, editing, pasting), otherwise it will render as random characters or the dreaded �.

(Method 2) Use the "Alt Code."

If you have a keyboard with a numeric pad, you can use this method. Simply hold down the Alt key and type 8767. When you lift the Alt key, the symbol appears. ("Num Lock" must be on.)

(Method 3) Use the HTML Decimal Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#8767;</b>My symbol: ∿

(Method 4) Use the HTML Entity Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &acd;</b>My symbol: ∿

(Method 5) Use the CSS Code (for webpages).

CSS and HTML TextOutput
span:after {
content: "\223F";}
<span>My symbol:</span>
My symbol: ∿

(Method 6) Use the HTML Hex Code (for webpages and HTML canvas).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#x223F;</b>My symbol: ∿
On the assumption that you already have your canvas and the context set up, use the Hex code in the format 0x223F to place the ∿ symbol on your canvas. For example:
JavaScript Text
const x = "0x"+"E9"
ctx.fillText(String.fromCodePoint(x), 5, 5);

(Method 7) Use the Unicode (for various, e.g. Microsoft Office, JavaScript, Perl).

The Unicode for ∿ is U+223F. The important part is the hexadecimal number after the U+, which is used in various formats. For example, in Microsoft Office applications (e.g. Word, PowerPoint), do the following:
[Hold down Alt]
[Press x]

(The 223F turns into ∿. Note that you can omit any leading zeros.)
In JavaScript, the syntax is \uXXXX. So, our example would be \u223F. (Note that the format is 4 hexadecimal characters.)
JavaScript TextOutput
let str = "\u223F"
document.write("My symbol: " + str)
My symbol: ∿