The Mathematical Symbol "Right Normal Factor Semidirect Product (⋊)"

The "Right Normal Factor Semidirect Product" Symbol (⋊)

The ⋊ symbol represents the "Right Normal Factor Semidirect Product" in group theory, a branch of mathematics. It signifies a particular type of non-trivial group construction.

Background in Group Theory

Group theory is a mathematical study of symmetry, and groups can be thought of as algebraic structures that capture the essence of symmetrical operations. The semidirect product is one way to combine two groups into a new group, especially when one of the groups acts on the other in a specific way.

Understanding the Semidirect Product

Given two groups \( N \) and \( H \), if \( H \) acts on \( N \) (via group automorphisms), then their semidirect product exists and is often denoted as \( N \rtimes H \). Here, \( N \) is the normal subgroup of the semidirect product.

It's crucial to note that the semidirect product is non-commutative in general, meaning \( N \rtimes H \) is not necessarily the same as \( H \ltimes N \) (Left Normal Factor Semidirect Product).


Semidirect products arise in various contexts in mathematics:

  • Crystallographic Groups: The study of the symmetrical properties of crystals.
  • Geometry and Topology: Especially in the context of studying the symmetries of geometric objects.
  • Physics: In the study of space-time symmetries and other related topics.


The ⋊ symbol holds significance in the realm of group theory, representing a nuanced way to combine groups under specific conditions. Its applications, particularly in crystallography and physics, underscore its importance in capturing complex symmetrical relationships.

Mathematical symbol 'Right Normal Factor Semidirect Product'

Are You Good at Mathematical Symbols?

Do you know, or can you guess, the technical symbols? Well, let's see!
gold cup

gold cup

gold cup

  • This test has questions.
  • A correct answer is worth 5 points.
  • You can get up to 5 bonus points for a speedy answer.
  • Some questions demand more than one answer. You must get every part right.
  • Beware! Wrong answers score 0 points.
  • 🏆 If you beat one of the top 3 scores, you will be invited to apply for the Hall of Fame.
Scoring System

Guru (+)
Hero (+)
Captain (+)
Sergeant (+)
Recruit (+)

Codes for the ⋊ Symbol

The Symbol
Alt CodeAlt 8906
HTML Code⋊
HTML Entity⋊
CSS Code\22CA
Hex Code⋊

How To Insert the ⋊ Symbol

(Method 1) Copy and paste the symbol.

The easiest way to get the ⋊ symbol is to copy and paste it into your document.

Bear in mind that this is a UTF-8 encoded character. It must be encoded as UTF-8 at all stages (copying, replacing, editing, pasting), otherwise it will render as random characters or the dreaded �.

(Method 2) Use the "Alt Code."

If you have a keyboard with a numeric pad, you can use this method. Simply hold down the Alt key and type 8906. When you lift the Alt key, the symbol appears. ("Num Lock" must be on.)

(Method 3) Use the HTML Decimal Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#8906;</b>My symbol: ⋊

(Method 4) Use the HTML Entity Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &rtimes;</b>My symbol: ⋊

(Method 5) Use the CSS Code (for webpages).

CSS and HTML TextOutput
span:after {
content: "\22CA";}
<span>My symbol:</span>
My symbol: ⋊

(Method 6) Use the HTML Hex Code (for webpages and HTML canvas).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#x22CA;</b>My symbol: ⋊
On the assumption that you already have your canvas and the context set up, use the Hex code in the format 0x22CA to place the ⋊ symbol on your canvas. For example:
JavaScript Text
const x = "0x"+"E9"
ctx.fillText(String.fromCodePoint(x), 5, 5);

(Method 7) Use the Unicode (for various, e.g. Microsoft Office, JavaScript, Perl).

The Unicode for ⋊ is U+22CA. The important part is the hexadecimal number after the U+, which is used in various formats. For example, in Microsoft Office applications (e.g. Word, PowerPoint), do the following:
[Hold down Alt]
[Press x]

(The 22CA turns into ⋊. Note that you can omit any leading zeros.)
In JavaScript, the syntax is \uXXXX. So, our example would be \u22CA. (Note that the format is 4 hexadecimal characters.)
JavaScript TextOutput
let str = "\u22CA"
document.write("My symbol: " + str)
My symbol: ⋊