The Mathematical Symbol "Normal Subgroup Of (⊲)"

The "Normal Subgroup Of" Symbol (⊲): A Pillar of Group Theory

Within the scope of abstract algebra, particularly group theory, symbols are required for expressing complex relationships and structures. The ⊲ symbol, known as the "Normal Subgroup Of", is one such representation.

Delving into ⊲

The ⊲ symbol denotes that a group is a normal subgroup of another group. A subgroup \( H \) of a group \( G \) is said to be normal in \( G \) if, for every element \( a \) in \( G \), the product \( aH \) is equal to \( Ha \). This property ensures certain compatibility with group operations, making it an essential concept in group theory.

Example 1: Algebraic Structures

If we take two algebraic structures \( G \) and \( H \), the relation \( H ⊲ G \) suggests that \( H \) is a normal subgroup of \( G \).

Example 2: Factor Groups

Having a normal subgroup like \( H \) in \( G \) means we can form a factor group or quotient group \( G/H \), which is a fundamental concept in understanding the structure and properties of groups.

Domains of ⊲ Application

The ⊲ symbol finds its footing in numerous areas of mathematics:

  • Group Theory: As a foundational symbol for defining normal subgroups and factor groups.
  • Algebra: In advanced algebraic structures and their properties.
  • Research: In explorations of more complex algebraic structures and topological groups.

The symbol not only simplifies expressions but also ensures accurate conveyance of mathematical relationships, especially in intricate algebraic discussions.

In summary, the ⊲ symbol serves as a linchpin in group theory, symbolizing the "Normal Subgroup Of" relation. It provides a concise and clear way to represent one of the most fundamental concepts in algebra, ensuring mathematical discourse remains exact and insightful.

Mathematical symbol 'Normal Subgroup Of'

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Codes for the ⊲ Symbol

The Symbol
Alt CodeAlt 8882
HTML Code⊲
HTML Entity⊲
CSS Code\22B2
Hex Code⊲

How To Insert the ⊲ Symbol

(Method 1) Copy and paste the symbol.

The easiest way to get the ⊲ symbol is to copy and paste it into your document.

Bear in mind that this is a UTF-8 encoded character. It must be encoded as UTF-8 at all stages (copying, replacing, editing, pasting), otherwise it will render as random characters or the dreaded �.

(Method 2) Use the "Alt Code."

If you have a keyboard with a numeric pad, you can use this method. Simply hold down the Alt key and type 8882. When you lift the Alt key, the symbol appears. ("Num Lock" must be on.)

(Method 3) Use the HTML Decimal Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#8882;</b>My symbol: ⊲

(Method 4) Use the HTML Entity Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &vltri;</b>My symbol: ⊲

(Method 5) Use the CSS Code (for webpages).

CSS and HTML TextOutput
span:after {
content: "\22B2";}
<span>My symbol:</span>
My symbol: ⊲

(Method 6) Use the HTML Hex Code (for webpages and HTML canvas).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#x22B2;</b>My symbol: ⊲
On the assumption that you already have your canvas and the context set up, use the Hex code in the format 0x22B2 to place the ⊲ symbol on your canvas. For example:
JavaScript Text
const x = "0x"+"E9"
ctx.fillText(String.fromCodePoint(x), 5, 5);

(Method 7) Use the Unicode (for various, e.g. Microsoft Office, JavaScript, Perl).

The Unicode for ⊲ is U+22B2. The important part is the hexadecimal number after the U+, which is used in various formats. For example, in Microsoft Office applications (e.g. Word, PowerPoint), do the following:
[Hold down Alt]
[Press x]

(The 22B2 turns into ⊲. Note that you can omit any leading zeros.)
In JavaScript, the syntax is \uXXXX. So, our example would be \u22B2. (Note that the format is 4 hexadecimal characters.)
JavaScript TextOutput
let str = "\u22B2"
document.write("My symbol: " + str)
My symbol: ⊲