The Mathematical Symbol "Geometric Proportion (∺)"

The ∺ Symbol in Mathematics: Geometric Proportion

In the vast world of mathematical notation, symbols serve as shorthand for complex operations, relationships, and ideas. One such intriguing symbol is ∺, often used to represent a geometric proportion. This article aims to clarify its meaning and showcase examples of its use.


The ∺ symbol is typically employed to express that three or more quantities are in geometric progression. In other words, when there's a constant ratio between successive terms, the symbol can be used to succinctly express this relationship.


  • Example 1: Basic Ratios:
    Given numbers \( a \), \( b \), and \( c \). If \( a : b \) is in the same ratio as \( b : c \), we can write the relationship as \( a ∺ b ∺ c \).
  • Example 2: Geometric Sequences:
    Consider a geometric sequence with terms \( t_1, t_2, t_3 \), and so forth. If each term is the product of the previous term and a constant \( r \), then the relationship between three successive terms can be denoted as \( t_1 ∺ t_2 ∺ t_3 \).

In essence, the ∺ symbol serves as an elegant notation for representing geometric proportions. While it might not be as commonly encountered as some other mathematical symbols, it offers a concise way to denote a key relationship in sequences and series. When you come across it, you now know that it hints at a consistent ratio being maintained across terms.

Mathematical symbol 'Geometric Proportion'

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Codes for the ∺ Symbol

The Symbol
Alt CodeAlt 8762
HTML Code∺
HTML Entity∺
CSS Code\223A
Hex Code∺

How To Insert the ∺ Symbol

(Method 1) Copy and paste the symbol.

The easiest way to get the ∺ symbol is to copy and paste it into your document.

Bear in mind that this is a UTF-8 encoded character. It must be encoded as UTF-8 at all stages (copying, replacing, editing, pasting), otherwise it will render as random characters or the dreaded �.

(Method 2) Use the "Alt Code."

If you have a keyboard with a numeric pad, you can use this method. Simply hold down the Alt key and type 8762. When you lift the Alt key, the symbol appears. ("Num Lock" must be on.)

(Method 3) Use the HTML Decimal Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#8762;</b>My symbol: ∺

(Method 4) Use the HTML Entity Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &mDDot;</b>My symbol: ∺

(Method 5) Use the CSS Code (for webpages).

CSS and HTML TextOutput
span:after {
content: "\223A";}
<span>My symbol:</span>
My symbol: ∺

(Method 6) Use the HTML Hex Code (for webpages and HTML canvas).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#x223A;</b>My symbol: ∺
On the assumption that you already have your canvas and the context set up, use the Hex code in the format 0x223A to place the ∺ symbol on your canvas. For example:
JavaScript Text
const x = "0x"+"E9"
ctx.fillText(String.fromCodePoint(x), 5, 5);

(Method 7) Use the Unicode (for various, e.g. Microsoft Office, JavaScript, Perl).

The Unicode for ∺ is U+223A. The important part is the hexadecimal number after the U+, which is used in various formats. For example, in Microsoft Office applications (e.g. Word, PowerPoint), do the following:
[Hold down Alt]
[Press x]

(The 223A turns into ∺. Note that you can omit any leading zeros.)
In JavaScript, the syntax is \uXXXX. So, our example would be \u223A. (Note that the format is 4 hexadecimal characters.)
JavaScript TextOutput
let str = "\u223A"
document.write("My symbol: " + str)
My symbol: ∺