The Mathematical Symbol "Contains As Member (∋)"

The ∋ Symbol in Mathematics: Contains As Member

Mathematics is adorned with a plethora of symbols, each encapsulating its own distinct meaning. Among them is the ∋ symbol, referred to as "Contains As Member" or "Such That".


The ∋ symbol is predominantly used in set theory and signifies the membership relation but viewed from the perspective of the set, rather than the element. In simpler terms, it can be read as "contains" or "has as a member". This is the reverse of the more commonly known "element of" symbol, ∈.


  • Example 1: Expressing membership from the set's perspective:
    \( S ∋ x \)
    This reads as "Set \( S \) contains \( x \)" or "\( x \) is an element/member of \( S \)".
  • Example 2: In the context of a function's domain and range:
    If \( f: A \to B \) is a function, then for an element \( b \) in \( B \), \( f(A) ∋ b \) suggests that \( b \) is a value the function \( f \) can take.

In summary, the ∋ symbol serves as an important notation in mathematical contexts, primarily in set theory. Understanding its use and implication ensures accurate interpretation and expression of mathematical relationships and statements.

Mathematical symbol 'Contains As Member'

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Codes for the ∋ Symbol

The Symbol
Alt CodeAlt 8715
HTML Code∋
HTML Entity∋
CSS Code\220B
Hex Code∋

How To Insert the ∋ Symbol

(Method 1) Copy and paste the symbol.

The easiest way to get the ∋ symbol is to copy and paste it into your document.

Bear in mind that this is a UTF-8 encoded character. It must be encoded as UTF-8 at all stages (copying, replacing, editing, pasting), otherwise it will render as random characters or the dreaded �.

(Method 2) Use the "Alt Code."

If you have a keyboard with a numeric pad, you can use this method. Simply hold down the Alt key and type 8715. When you lift the Alt key, the symbol appears. ("Num Lock" must be on.)

(Method 3) Use the HTML Decimal Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#8715;</b>My symbol: ∋

(Method 4) Use the HTML Entity Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &ni;</b>My symbol: ∋

(Method 5) Use the CSS Code (for webpages).

CSS and HTML TextOutput
span:after {
content: "\220B";}
<span>My symbol:</span>
My symbol: ∋

(Method 6) Use the HTML Hex Code (for webpages and HTML canvas).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#x220B;</b>My symbol: ∋
On the assumption that you already have your canvas and the context set up, use the Hex code in the format 0x220B to place the ∋ symbol on your canvas. For example:
JavaScript Text
const x = "0x"+"E9"
ctx.fillText(String.fromCodePoint(x), 5, 5);

(Method 7) Use the Unicode (for various, e.g. Microsoft Office, JavaScript, Perl).

The Unicode for ∋ is U+220B. The important part is the hexadecimal number after the U+, which is used in various formats. For example, in Microsoft Office applications (e.g. Word, PowerPoint), do the following:
[Hold down Alt]
[Press x]

(The 220B turns into ∋. Note that you can omit any leading zeros.)
In JavaScript, the syntax is \uXXXX. So, our example would be \u220B. (Note that the format is 4 hexadecimal characters.)
JavaScript TextOutput
let str = "\u220B"
document.write("My symbol: " + str)
My symbol: ∋