The Mathematical Symbol "Circled Dash (⊝)"

The ⊝ Symbol in Mathematics: Circled Dash

In the extensive world of mathematical symbols, some notations, while not always common, serve distinct purposes. The ⊝ symbol, or "Circled Dash", is one such unique notation. This article provides insights into its role and significance, complemented by illustrative examples.


The ⊝ symbol isn't a regular fixture in standard mathematical equations but finds its niche in specific mathematical contexts or areas. Essentially, it combines the idea of a circle (or circled operation) with a dash, possibly representing an operation related to subtraction or negation with a special emphasis.


  • Example 1: In some algebraic structures or group theory contexts, a circled operation like ⊝ could represent a specialized subtraction or negation operation. For instance:
    \( a ⊝ b \)
    might imply a subtraction or difference operation defined uniquely for a particular set or group.
  • Example 2: In some diagrammatic representations or logic diagrams, ⊝ can be employed to indicate a special node, operation, or function, emphasizing its significance or unique role in the system.

In summary, while ⊝ might not be a symbol frequently encountered in conventional math problems, its presence in specialized contexts highlights the versatility and breadth of mathematical symbols. Understanding such nuanced notations becomes crucial when navigating advanced mathematical terrains.

Mathematical symbol 'Circled Dash'

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Codes for the ⊝ Symbol

The Symbol
Alt CodeAlt 8861
HTML Code⊝
HTML Entity⊝
CSS Code\229D
Hex Code⊝

How To Insert the ⊝ Symbol

(Method 1) Copy and paste the symbol.

The easiest way to get the ⊝ symbol is to copy and paste it into your document.

Bear in mind that this is a UTF-8 encoded character. It must be encoded as UTF-8 at all stages (copying, replacing, editing, pasting), otherwise it will render as random characters or the dreaded �.

(Method 2) Use the "Alt Code."

If you have a keyboard with a numeric pad, you can use this method. Simply hold down the Alt key and type 8861. When you lift the Alt key, the symbol appears. ("Num Lock" must be on.)

(Method 3) Use the HTML Decimal Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#8861;</b>My symbol: ⊝

(Method 4) Use the HTML Entity Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &odash;</b>My symbol: ⊝

(Method 5) Use the CSS Code (for webpages).

CSS and HTML TextOutput
span:after {
content: "\229D";}
<span>My symbol:</span>
My symbol: ⊝

(Method 6) Use the HTML Hex Code (for webpages and HTML canvas).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#x229D;</b>My symbol: ⊝
On the assumption that you already have your canvas and the context set up, use the Hex code in the format 0x229D to place the ⊝ symbol on your canvas. For example:
JavaScript Text
const x = "0x"+"E9"
ctx.fillText(String.fromCodePoint(x), 5, 5);

(Method 7) Use the Unicode (for various, e.g. Microsoft Office, JavaScript, Perl).

The Unicode for ⊝ is U+229D. The important part is the hexadecimal number after the U+, which is used in various formats. For example, in Microsoft Office applications (e.g. Word, PowerPoint), do the following:
[Hold down Alt]
[Press x]

(The 229D turns into ⊝. Note that you can omit any leading zeros.)
In JavaScript, the syntax is \uXXXX. So, our example would be \u229D. (Note that the format is 4 hexadecimal characters.)
JavaScript TextOutput
let str = "\u229D"
document.write("My symbol: " + str)
My symbol: ⊝