The Mathematical Symbol "Character Tabulation with Justification (‰)"

The ‰ Symbol: Per Mille

When dealing with ratios and proportions in various contexts, we often encounter percentages. However, there's a finer and more specific unit of measurement: the ‰ symbol, representing the "Per Mille" or "parts per thousand". This article elaborates on this symbol's significance and provides examples of its application.


The ‰ symbol is utilized to express fractions as parts of a thousand. While percentages denote parts of a hundred, per mille offers a more granular view, which can be particularly helpful when dealing with small variations or differences that might not be adequately captured by percentages.


  • Example 1: If a substance has a concentration of 5 parts per thousand in a solution, it can be represented as:
    Concentration = 5‰
  • Example 2: In demographic studies or surveys, if a particular group represents 2 out of every 1000 individuals, this proportion can be depicted as:
    Group representation = 2‰

In summary, the ‰ symbol provides an indispensable tool for expressing ratios in a more detailed manner, especially in contexts where slight variations matter. Recognizing its utility can enhance the precision and clarity of data representation.

Mathematical symbol 'Character Tabulation with Justification'

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Codes for the ‰ Symbol

The Symbol
Alt CodeAlt 137
HTML Code‰
HTML Entity‰
CSS Code\0089
Hex Code‰

How To Insert the ‰ Symbol

(Method 1) Copy and paste the symbol.

The easiest way to get the ‰ symbol is to copy and paste it into your document.

Bear in mind that this is a UTF-8 encoded character. It must be encoded as UTF-8 at all stages (copying, replacing, editing, pasting), otherwise it will render as random characters or the dreaded �.

(Method 2) Use the "Alt Code."

If you have a keyboard with a numeric pad, you can use this method. Simply hold down the Alt key and type 137. When you lift the Alt key, the symbol appears. ("Num Lock" must be on.)

(Method 3) Use the HTML Decimal Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#137;</b>My symbol: ‰

(Method 4) Use the HTML Entity Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &permil;</b>My symbol: ‰

(Method 5) Use the CSS Code (for webpages).

CSS and HTML TextOutput
span:after {
content: "\0089";}
<span>My symbol:</span>
My symbol: ‰

(Method 6) Use the HTML Hex Code (for webpages and HTML canvas).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#x0089;</b>My symbol: ‰
On the assumption that you already have your canvas and the context set up, use the Hex code in the format 0x0089 to place the ‰ symbol on your canvas. For example:
JavaScript Text
const x = "0x"+"E9"
ctx.fillText(String.fromCodePoint(x), 5, 5);

(Method 7) Use the Unicode (for various, e.g. Microsoft Office, JavaScript, Perl).

The Unicode for ‰ is U+0089. The important part is the hexadecimal number after the U+, which is used in various formats. For example, in Microsoft Office applications (e.g. Word, PowerPoint), do the following:
[Hold down Alt]
[Press x]

(The 0089 turns into ‰. Note that you can omit any leading zeros.)
In JavaScript, the syntax is \uXXXX. So, our example would be \u0089. (Note that the format is 4 hexadecimal characters.)
JavaScript TextOutput
let str = "\u0089"
document.write("My symbol: " + str)
My symbol: ‰