Using the Cosine Function to Find the Adjacent
(KS3, Year 8)

The cosine function relates a given angle to the adjacent side and hypotenuse of a right triangle. The length of the adjacent is given by the formula below:

adjacent equals cosine function In this formula, θ is an angle of a right triangle, the adjacent is the length of the side next to the angle and the hypotenuse is the length of longest side. The image below shows what we mean:

cosine adjacent hypotenuse image

How to Use the Cosine Function to Find the Adjacent of a Right Triangle

Finding the adjacent of a right triangle is easy when we know the angle and the hypotenuse.


What is the length of the adjacent of the right triangle shown below?



Start with the formula:
Adjacent = cos θ × hypotenuse


Substitute the angle θ and the length of the hypotenuse into the formula. In our example, θ = 60° and the hypotenuse is 5 cm.

Adjacent = cos (60°) × 5

Adjacent = 0.5 × 5

Adjacent = 2.5


The length of the adjacent of a right triangle with an angle of 60° and a hypotenuse of 5 cm is 2.5 cm.

Remembering the Formula

Often, the hardest part of finding the unknown angle is remembering which formula to use. Whenever you have a right triangle where you know one side and one angle and have to find an unknown side... ......think trigonometry... ...............think sine, cosine or tangent... ........................think SOH CAH TOA.

SOH CAH TOA Looking at the example above, we are trying to find the Adjacent and we know the Hypotenuse.

right triangle h known a unknown The two letters we are looking for are AH, which comes in the CAH in SOH CAH TOA. This reminds us of the equation:
Cos θ = Adjacent / Hypotenuse
This is rearranged to get the formula at the top of the page (see Note).
Adjacent = Cos θ × Hypotenuse

Lesson Slides

The slider below gives another example of finding the adjacent of a right triangle (since the angle and hypotenuse are known).

Interactive Widget

Here is an interactive widget to help you learn about the cosine function on a right triangle.

What Is the Cosine Function?

The cosine function is a trigonometric function. The cosine of a given angle in a right triangle is the ratio of the length of the adjacent side to the length of the hypotenuse. The cosine function is defined by the formula:

cos function mini The image below shows what we mean by the given angle (labelled θ), the adjacent and the hypotenuse:

right angled triangle explained

How to Rearrange the Cosine Function Formula

A useful way to remember simple formulae is to use a small triangle, as shown below:

cah triangle Here, the C stands for Cos θ, the A for Adjacent and the H for Hypotenuse (from the CAH in SOH CAH TOA). To find the formula for the Adjacent, cover up the A with your thumb:

cah triangle with thumb over a This leaves C next to H - which means C times H, or, Cos θ × Hypotenuse. This tells you that:
Adjacent = Cos θ × Hypotenuse
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This page was written by Stephen Clarke.