The LessonAn operation takes values and calculates a new value from them.
Dictionary DefinitionThe Merriam-Webster dictionary defines an operation as "any of various mathematical or logical processes (such as addition) of deriving one entity from others according to a rule. Multiplication is one mathematical operation."
The Basic OperationsThe most common operations take two values and calculates a new value from them. The basic operations in arithmetic are:
- Addition +.
- Subtraction −.
- Multiplication ×.
- Division ÷.
AdditionTakes two numbers and adds them together.
SubtractionTakes two numbers and subtracts the number on the right from the number on the left.
MultiplicationTakes two numbers and multiplies them.
DivisionTakes two numbers and divides the number on the left by the number on the right.
Lesson SlidesThe slider below shows more about operations.
More OperationsSome operations take one value and calculates a new value from them.
ExponentsAn exponent tells you how many times a number (or other quantity) is multiplied by itself.
SquareFor example, an exponent of 2 means squaring a number.
The opposite of squaring a number is finding the square root.
Square RootAn exponent of 1⁄2 means finding the square root of a number. The square root of a number, when multiplied by itself, gives that number.
NegationNegation finds the negative value of a number. For example, negating 2 produces −2.
ReciprocalThe reciprocal of a number is the result of dividing 1 by that number. For example, the reciprocal of 2 is calculated by dividing 1 by 2.
The Parts of Operations
- The numbers operated upon are called operands.
- The symbol which shows what type of operation is taking place is called the operator.
The Arity of OperationsThe arity of operations is given by how many operands there are. The most common operations are binary operations, which have an arity of 2. There are 2 operands. Addition is a binary operation:
2 + 3 → 5A unary operation has an arity of 1. There is only 1 operand. Negation is a unary operation:
−(2) → −2