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Fractions
(KS1, Year 2)
The Lesson
A fraction is a part of a whole number.Dictionary Definition
The Oxford English Dictionary defines a fraction as "a numerical quantity that is not a whole number (e.g. 1/2, 0.5)."A Real Example of a Fraction
A fraction is usually written as one number over another number.This is a quarter. It is written as 1 over 4. It represents 1 part in 4.
A Real Example of What a Fraction Means
Imagine we wanted to find ¼ of a cake.Question
What does ¼ of a cake look like?
The bottom number of our fraction (called the denominator) is 4. It tells us to divide the cake into 4 equal parts.

The top number of our fraction (called the numerator) is 1. It tells us how many of these equal parts we have.
How to Visualize Fractions
Thinking of slices of a cake is a useful way of visualizing fractions. The top number (the numerator) tells you have many slices you have.
 The bottom number (the denominator) tells you how many equal slices the cake is cut into.
Types of Fractions
There are three different types of fractions.Type of Fraction  Example  Explanation 

Proper fraction  The numerator is less than the demoninator  
Improper fraction  The numerator is greater or equal to the demoninator  
Mixed fraction  A whole number and a fraction 
What's in a Name?
"Fraction" comes from the Latin "fractus", meaning "broken". A whole is "broken" into parts.Saying Fractions
Saying fractions is simple. When the numerator is one, here is a list of the names of fractions:It continues, one fifth, one sixth, one seventh, one eighth etc. (Note: instead of saying "fourth", you can say "quarter"). When the numerator is more than one, just say the number in the numerator instead of one, and use the plural (halves instead of half etc.):
For mixed fractions, say the name of the whole number, then "and", followed by the name of the fraction:
The Size of Fractions
If you increase the numerator (keeping the denominator the same), you increase the fraction. If we visualise a fraction as a cake, a bigger numerator means more slices.If you increase the denominator (keeping the numerator the same), you decrease the fraction  the cake is cut into more pieces, so each slice is smaller.
Other Types of Fractional Numbers
Fractional numbers can also be represented by decimals, negative exponents, percentages, and ratios. For example: A fraction: ^{1}/_{2}
 A decimal: 0.5
 A negative exponent: 2^{*minus;1}
 A percentage: 50%
 A ratio: 1:2
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