# Number and Arithmetic (Mathematics Curriculum)

# Arithmetic

## What Is Arithmetic?

Arithmetic is a branch of mathematics that studies numbers and the operations applied to numbers.

### Dictionary Definition

The Oxford English Dictionary defines arithmetic as "the science of numbers; the art of computation by figures."

Here are some examples from arithmetic. We might be interested in adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing numbers. We might be interested in doing several of these and have to do them in the correct order. Arithmetic allows us to do this.

## Where Does the Word Arithmetic Come From?

Arithmetic comes from the Greek word 'arithmētikḗ' meaning “counting”.

'Arithmos' is the Greek word for "number".

## Operations and Their Order

Operations take numbers to create a new number.

The most common operations in arithmetic are adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing.

In this mini-curriculum, you will learn about operations.

## Advanced Arithmetic

When numbers get larger than a single numeral, we must use place value and 'long' arithmetic.

In this mini-curriculum, you will learn about place value, long addition, long subtraction, long multiplication and long division.

## Factors

The factors of a number are those numbers that multiply to make that number. They divide exactly into the number.

In this mini-curriculum, you will learn about factors.

## Multiples

Multiples are the result of multiplying a number by another whole number.

In this mini-curriculum, you will learn about multiples.

## Powers

Powers are the result of multiplying a number by itself.

In this mini-curriculum, you will learn about the parts of powers.

## Laws of Exponents

The laws of exponents lets you do arithmetic with powers.

In this mini-curriculum, you will learn about the laws of exponents.

## Reciprocals

Reciprocals of a number are 1 divided by the number. They can be denoted by an exponent of −1.

In this mini-curriculum, you will learn about reciprocals.